page fault handling on alpha


This was a quiet evening on #gentoo-alpha. Matt Turner shared an unusual kernel crash report seen by Dmitry V. Levin.

Dmitry noticed that one of AlphaServer ES40 machines does not handle strace test suite and generates kernel oopses:

Unable to handle kernel paging request at virtual address ffffffffffff9468
CPU 3 
aio(26027): Oops 0
pc = [<fffffc00004eddf8>]  ra = [<fffffc00004edd5c>]  ps = 0000    Not tainted
pc is at sys_io_submit+0x108/0x200
ra is at sys_io_submit+0x6c/0x200
v0 = fffffc00c58e6300  t0 = fffffffffffffff2  t1 = 000002000025e000
t2 = fffffc01f159fef8  t3 = fffffc0001009640  t4 = fffffc0000e0f6e0
t5 = 0000020001002e9e  t6 = 4c41564e49452031  t7 = fffffc01f159c000
s0 = 0000000000000002  s1 = 000002000025e000  s2 = 0000000000000000
s3 = 0000000000000000  s4 = 0000000000000000  s5 = fffffffffffffff2
s6 = fffffc00c58e6300
a0 = fffffc00c58e6300  a1 = 0000000000000000  a2 = 000002000025e000
a3 = 00000200001ac260  a4 = 00000200001ac1e8  a5 = 0000000000000001
t8 = 0000000000000008  t9 = 000000011f8bce30  t10= 00000200001ac440
t11= 0000000000000000  pv = fffffc00006fd320  at = 0000000000000000
gp = 0000000000000000  sp = 00000000265fd174
Disabling lock debugging due to kernel taint
[<fffffc0000311404>] entSys+0xa4/0xc0

Oopses should never happen against userland workloads.

Here crash happened right in the io_submit() syscall. “Should be a very simple arch-specific bug. Can’t take much time to fix.” was my thought. Haha.


Dmitry provided very nice reproducer of the problem (extracted from strace test suite):

// $ cat aio.c
#include <err.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <asm/unistd.h>
int main(void)
    unsigned long ctx = 0;
    if (syscall(__NR_io_setup, 1, &ctx))
        err(1, "io_setup");
    const size_t page_size = sysconf(_SC_PAGESIZE);
    const size_t size = page_size * 2;
    void *ptr = mmap(NULL, size, PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE,
                     MAP_PRIVATE | MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0);
    if (MAP_FAILED == ptr)
        err(1, "mmap(%zu)", size);
    if (munmap(ptr, size))
        err(1, "munmap");
    syscall(__NR_io_submit, ctx, 1, ptr + page_size);
    syscall(__NR_io_destroy, ctx);
    return 0;

The idea of this test is simple: create valid context for asynchronous IO and pass invalid pointer ptr to it. mmap()/munmap() trick makes sure the ptr is pointing at an invalid non-NULL user memory location.

To reproduce and explore the bug locally I picked qemu alpha system emulation. To avoid complexity of searching for proper IDE driver for root filesystem I built minimal linux kernel with only initramfs support without filesystem or block device support.

Then I put statically linked reproducer and busybox into initramfs:

$ LANG=C tree root/
|-- aio (statically linked aio.c)
|-- aio.c (source above)
|-- bin
|   |-- busybox (statically linked busybox)
|   `-- sh -> busybox
|-- dev (empty dir)
|-- init (script below)
|-- proc (empty dir)
`-- sys (empty dir)

4 directories, 5 files

$ cat root/init

mount -t proc none /proc
mount -t sysfs none /sys
exec bin/sh

To run qemu system emulation against the above I used the following one-liner:


alpha-unknown-linux-gnu-gcc root/aio.c -o root/aio -static
( cd root && find . -print0 | cpio --null -ov --format=newc; ) | gzip -9 > initramfs.cpio.gz
qemu-system-alpha -kernel vmlinux -initrd initramfs.cpio.gz -m 1G "$@" builds initramfs image and runs kernel against it.

Cross-compiling vmlinux on alpha is also straightforward:


ARCH=alpha                      \
CROSS_COMPILE=alpha-unknown-linux-gnu- \
make -C ../linux.git        \
O="$(pwd)"                  \

I built kernel and started a VM as:

# build kernel
$ ./ -j$(nproc)

# run kernel
$ ./ -curses
[    0.650390] input: AT Translated Set 2 keyboard as /devices/platform/i8042/serio0/input/input0
/ #

That was simple. I got the prompt! Then I ran statically linked /aio reproducer as:

/ # /aio
Unable to handle kernel paging request at virtual address 0000000000000000
aio(26027): Oops -1

Woohoo! Crashed \o/ This allowed me to explore failure in more detail.

I used -curses (instead of default -sdl) to ease copying of text back from VM.

Fault address pattern was slightly different from the original report. I hoped it’s a manifestation of the same bug. Worst case I would find another bug to fix and get back to original one again :)

Into the rabbit hole

Oops was happening every time I ran /aio on 4.20 kernel. io_submit(2) man page claims it’s an old system call from 2.5 kernel era. Thus it should not be a recent addition.

How about older kernels? Did they also fail?

I was still not sure I had correct qemu/kernel setup. I decided to pick older 4.14 kernel version known to run without major problems on our alpha box. 4.14 kernel version did not crash in qemu either. This reassured me I have not completely broken setup.

I got first suspect: kernel regression.

Reproducer was very stable. Kernel bisection got me to first regressed commit:

commit 95af8496ac48263badf5b8dde5e06ef35aaace2b
Author: Al Viro <>
Date:   Sat May 26 19:43:16 2018 -0400

    aio: shift copyin of iocb into io_submit_one()

    Reviewed-by: Christoph Hellwig <>
    Signed-off-by: Al Viro <>

:040000 040000 20dd44ac4706540b1c1d4085e4269bd8590f4e80 05d477161223e5062f2f781b462e0222c733fe3d M      fs

The commit clearly touched io_submit() syscall handling. But there is a problem: the change was not alpha-specific at all. If commit had any problems it also should have caused problems on other systems.

To get better understanding of probable cause I decided to look at failure mechanics. Actual values of local variables in io_submit() right before crash might get me somewhere. I started adding printk() statements around SYSCALL_DEFINE3(io_submit, …) implementation.

At some point after enough printk() calls added crashes disappeared. This confirmed it was not just a logical bug but something more subtle.

I also was not able to analyze the generated code difference between printk()/no-printk() versions.

Then I attempted to isolate faulty code into a separate function but not much success here either. Any attempt to factor out a subset of io_submit() into a separate function made bug to go away.

It was time for a next hypothesis: mysterious incorrect compiler code generation or invalid __asm__ constraints for some kernel macro exposed after minor code motion.

Single stepping through kernel

How to get an insight into the details without affecting original code too much?

Having failed at minimal code snippet I attempted to catch exact place of page fault by single-stepping through kerenel using gdb.

For qemu-loadable kernels the procedure very straightforward:

The same procedure in exact commands (I’m hooking into sys_io_submit()):

<at tty1>
$ ./ -s

<at tty2>
$ gdb --quiet vmlinux
(gdb) target remote localhost:1234
  Remote debugging using localhost:1234
  0xfffffc0000000180 in ?? ()
(gdb) break sys_io_submit 
  Breakpoint 1 at 0xfffffc000117f890: file ../linux-2.6/fs/aio.c, line 1890.
(gdb) continue

<at qemu>
  # /aio

<at tty2 again>
  Breakpoint 1, 0xfffffc000117f89c in sys_io_submit ()
(gdb) bt
  Breakpoint 1, __se_sys_io_submit (ctx_id=2199023255552, nr=1, iocbpp=2199023271936) at ../linux-2.6/fs/aio.c:1890
  1890    SYSCALL_DEFINE3(io_submit, aio_context_t, ctx_id, long, nr,
(gdb) bt
  #0  __se_sys_io_submit (ctx_id=2199023255552, nr=1, iocbpp=2199023271936) at ../linux-2.6/fs/aio.c:1890
  #1  0xfffffc0001011254 in entSys () at ../linux-2.6/arch/alpha/kernel/entry.S:476

Now we can single-step through every instruction with nexti and check where things go wrong.

To poke around efficiently I kept looking at these cheat sheets:

Register names are especially useful as each alpha register has two names: numeric and mnemonic. Source code might use one form and gdb disassembly might use another. For example $16/a0 for gas ($r16/$a0 for gdb) is a register to pass first integer argument to function.

After many backs and forths I found the suspicious behaviour when handling single instruction:

(gdb) disassemble
  => 0xfffffc000117f968 <+216>:   ldq     a1,0(t1)
     0xfffffc000117f96c <+220>:   bne     t0,0xfffffc000117f9c0 <__se_sys_io_submit+304>
(gdb) p $gp
    $1 = (void *) 0xfffffc0001c70908 # GOT
(gdb) p $a1
    $2 = 0
(gdb) p $t0
    $3 = 0
(gdb) nexti
     0xfffffc000117f968 <+216>:   ldq     a1,0(t1)
  => 0xfffffc000117f96c <+220>:   bne     t0,0xfffffc000117f9c0 <__se_sys_io_submit+304>
(gdb) p $gp
    $4 = (void *) 0x0
(gdb) p $a1
    $5 = 0
(gdb) p $t0
   $6 = -14 # -EFAULT

The above gdb session executes single ldq a1,0(t1) instruction and observes effect on the registers gp, a1, t0.

Normally ldq a1, 0(t1) would read 64-bit value pointed by t1 into a1 register and leave t0 and gp untouched.

The main effect seen here that causes later OOps is sudden gp change. gp is supposed to point to GOT (global offset table) table in current “program” (kernel in this case). Something managed to corrupt it.

By /aio test case construction instruction ldq a1,0(t1) is not supposed to read any valid data: our test case passes invalid memory location there. All the register changing effects are the result of page fault handling.

The smoking gun

Grepping around arch/alpha directory I noticed entMM page fault handling entry.

It claims to handle page faults and keeps gp value on stack. Let’s trace the fate of that on-stack value as page fault happens:

(gdb) disassemble
  => 0xfffffc000117f968 <+216>:   ldq     a1,0(t1)
     0xfffffc000117f96c <+220>:   bne     t0,0xfffffc000117f9c0 <__se_sys_io_submit+304>
(gdb) p $gp
    $1 = (void *) 0xfffffc0001c70908 # GOT

(gdb) break entMM
    Breakpoint 2 at 0xfffffc0001010e10: file ../linux-2.6/arch/alpha/kernel/entry.S, line 200
(gdb) continue
    Breakpoint 2, entMM () at ../linux-2.6/arch/alpha/kernel/entry.S:200
(gdb) x/8a $sp
    0xfffffc003f51be78:     0x0     0xfffffc000117f968 <__se_sys_io_submit+216>
    0xfffffc003f51be88:     0xfffffc0001c70908 <# GOT> 0xfffffc003f4f2040
    0xfffffc003f51be98:     0x0     0x20000004000 <# userland address>
    0xfffffc003f51bea8:     0xfffffc0001011254 <entSys+164> 0x120001090
(gdb) watch -l *0xfffffc003f51be88
    Hardware watchpoint 3: -location *0xfffffc003f51be88
(gdb) continue
    Old value = 29821192
    New value = 0
    0xfffffc00010319d0 in do_page_fault (address=2199023271936, mmcsr=<optimized out>, cause=0, regs=0xfffffc003f51bdc0)
       at ../linux-2.6/arch/alpha/mm/fault.c:199
    199                     newpc = fixup_exception(dpf_reg, fixup, regs->pc);

Above gdb session does the following:

Watch triggers at seemingly relevant place: fixup_exception() where exception handler adjusts registers before resuming the faulted task.

Looking around I found an off-by-two bug in page fault handling code. The fix was simple:

--- a/arch/alpha/mm/fault.c
+++ b/arch/alpha/mm/fault.c
@@ -80,2 +80,2 @@ __load_new_mm_context(struct mm_struct *next_mm)
        (((unsigned long *)regs)[(r) <= 8 ? (r) : (r) <= 15 ? (r)-16 :  \
-                                (r) <= 18 ? (r)+8 : (r)-10])
+                                (r) <= 18 ? (r)+10 : (r)-10])

Patch is proposed upstream as

Effect of the patch is to write 0 into on-stack location of a1 ($17 register) instead of location of gp.

That’s it!

Page fault handling magic

I always wondered how kernel reads data from userspace when it’s needed. How does it do swap-in if data is not available? How does it check for permission privilege access? That kind of stuff.

The above investigation covers most of involved components:

The few minor missing details are:

Let’s expand the code involved in page fault handling. Call site:

SYSCALL_DEFINE3(io_submit, aio_context_t, ctx_id, long, nr,
                struct iocb __user * __user *, iocbpp)
    // ...
    struct iocb __user *user_iocb;
    if (unlikely(get_user(user_iocb, iocbpp + i))) {
    // ...

which is translated to already familiar pair of instructions:

=> 0xfffffc000117f968 <+216>:   ldq     a1,0(t1)
   0xfffffc000117f96c <+220>:   bne     t0,0xfffffc000117f9c0 <__se_sys_io_submit+304>

Fun fact: get_user() has two return values: normal function return value (stored into t0 register) and user_iocb effect (stored into a1 register).

Let’s expand get_user() implementation on alpha:

// somewhere at arch/alpha/include/asm/uaccess.h:
#define get_user(x, ptr) \
    __get_user_check((x), (ptr), sizeof(*(ptr)))

#define __get_user_check(x, ptr, size)                       \
    ({                                                       \
        long __gu_err = -EFAULT;                             \
        unsigned long __gu_val = 0;                          \
        const __typeof__(*(ptr)) __user *__gu_addr = (ptr);  \
        if (__access_ok((unsigned long)__gu_addr, size)) {   \
            __gu_err = 0;                                    \
            switch (size) {                                  \
              case 1: __get_user_8(__gu_addr); break;        \
              case 2: __get_user_16(__gu_addr); break;       \
              case 4: __get_user_32(__gu_addr); break;       \
              case 8: __get_user_64(__gu_addr); break;       \
              default: __get_user_unknown(); break;          \
            }                                                \
        }                                                    \
        (x) = (__force __typeof__(*(ptr))) __gu_val;         \
        __gu_err;                                            \

A lot of simple code above does two things:

  1. use __access_ok() to check for address to be a userspace address to prevent data exfiltration from kernel.
  2. dispatch across different supported sizes to do the rest of work. Our case is a simple 64-bit read.

Looking at __get_user_64() in more detail:

struct __large_struct { unsigned long buf[100]; };
#define __m(x) (*(struct __large_struct __user *)(x))

#define __get_user_64(addr)                    \
    __asm__("1: ldq %0,%2\n"                   \
            "2:\n"                             \
            EXC(1b,2b,%0,%1)                   \
           : "=r"(__gu_val), "=r"(__gu_err)    \
           : "m"(__m(addr)), "1"(__gu_err))

#define EXC(label,cont,res,err)                \
".section __ex_table,\"a\"\n"                  \
".long "#label"-.\n"                           \
"lda "#res","#cont"-"#label"("#err")\n"        \

A few observations:

Page fault handling mechanism knows how to get to __ex_table data where “1”(__gu_err) is encoded and is able to reach that data to use it later in mysterious fixup_exception() we saw before.

In case of alpha (and many other targets) __ex_table collection is defined by arch/alpha/kernel/ linker script using EXCEPTION_TABLE() macro:

#define EXCEPTION_TABLE(align)                         \
    . = ALIGN(align);                                  \
    __ex_table : AT(ADDR(__ex_table) - LOAD_OFFSET) {  \
        __start___ex_table = .;                        \
        KEEP(*(__ex_table))                            \
        __stop___ex_table = .;                         \

Here all __ex_table sections are gathered between __start___ex_table and __stop___ex_table symbols. Those are handled by generic kernel/extable.c code:

const struct exception_table_entry *search_exception_tables(unsigned long addr);

search_exception_tables() resolves faut address to relevant struct exception_table_entry.

Let’s look at the definition of struct exception_table_entry:

/* Once again part of __get_user_64() responsible for __ex_table:

  #define EXC(label,cont,res,err)                    \
  ".section __ex_table,\"a\"\n"                      \
      ".long "#label"-.\n"                           \
      "lda "#res","#cont"-"#label"("#err")\n"        \

struct exception_table_entry
    signed int insn;                  /* .long #label-. */
    union exception_fixup {
        unsigned unit;                /* lda #res,#cont-#label(#err) */
        struct {
            signed int nextinsn : 16; /*   #cont-#label part */
            unsigned int errreg : 5;  /*   #err part */
            unsigned int valreg : 5;  /*   #res part */
        } bits;
    } fixup;

/* Returns the new pc */
#define fixup_exception(map_reg, _fixup, pc)               \
({                                                         \
    if ((_fixup)->fixup.bits.valreg != 31)                 \
        map_reg((_fixup)->fixup.bits.valreg) = 0;          \
    if ((_fixup)->fixup.bits.errreg != 31)                 \
        map_reg((_fixup)->fixup.bits.errreg) = -EFAULT;    \
    (pc) + (_fixup)->fixup.bits.nextinsn;                  \

Note how lda in-memory instruction format is used to encode all details needed by fixup_exception()! In case of our sys_io_submit() case it would be lda a1, 4(t0) (lda r17, 4(r1)):

(gdb) bt
  #0  0xfffffc00010319d0 in do_page_fault (address=2199023271936, mmcsr=<optimized out>, cause=0, 
      regs=0xfffffc003f51bdc0) at ../linux-2.6/arch/alpha/mm/fault.c:199
  #1  0xfffffc0001010eac in entMM () at ../linux-2.6/arch/alpha/kernel/entry.S:222
(gdb) p *fixup
    $4 = {insn = -2584576, fixup = {unit = 572588036, bits = {nextinsn = 4, errreg = 1, valreg = 17}}}

Note how page fault handling also advances pc (program counter or instruction pointer) nextinsn=4 bytes forward to skip failed ldq instruction.

arch/alpha/mm/fault.c does all the heavy-lifting of handling page faults. Here is a small snippet that handles our case of faults covered by exception handling:

asmlinkage void
do_page_fault(unsigned long address, unsigned long mmcsr,
              long cause, struct pt_regs *regs)
    // ...
    /* Are we prepared to handle this fault as an exception?  */
    if ((fixup = search_exception_tables(regs->pc)) != 0) {
        unsigned long newpc;
        newpc = fixup_exception(dpf_reg, fixup, regs->pc);
        regs->pc = newpc;
    // ...
/* ...
 * Registers $9 through $15 are saved in a block just prior to `regs' and
 * are saved and restored around the call to allow exception code to
 * modify them.
/* Macro for exception fixup code to access integer registers.  */
#define dpf_reg(r)                                                  \
    (((unsigned long *)regs)[(r) <= 8 ? (r) : (r) <= 15 ? (r)-16 :  \
                             (r) <= 18 ? (r)+8 : (r)-10])

do_page_fault() also does a few other page-fault related things I carefully skipped here:

Once do_page_fault() gets control it updates regs struct in memory for faulted task using dpf_reg() macro. It looks unusual:

struct pt_regs as is:

struct pt_regs {
    unsigned long r0;  // 0
    unsigned long r1;
    unsigned long r2;
    unsigned long r3;
    unsigned long r4;
    unsigned long r5;  // 5
    unsigned long r6;
    unsigned long r7;
    unsigned long r8;
    unsigned long r19;
    unsigned long r20; // 10
    unsigned long r21;
    unsigned long r22;
    unsigned long r23;
    unsigned long r24;
    unsigned long r25; // 15
    unsigned long r26;
    unsigned long r27;
    unsigned long r28;
    unsigned long hae;
/* JRP - These are the values provided to a0-a2 by PALcode */
    unsigned long trap_a0; // 20
    unsigned long trap_a1;
    unsigned long trap_a2;
/* These are saved by PAL-code: */
    unsigned long ps;
    unsigned long pc;
    unsigned long gp; // 25
    unsigned long r16;
    unsigned long r17;
    unsigned long r18;

Now meaning of dpf_reg() should be more clear. As pt_regs keeps only a subset of registers is has to account for gaps and offsets.

Here I noticed the bug: r16-r18 range is handled incorrectly by dpf_reg(): r16 “address” is regs+10 (26-16), not regs+8.

The implementation also means that dpf_reg() can’t handle gp(r29) and sp(r30) registers as value registers. That should not normally be a problem as gcc never assigns those registers for temporary computations and keeps them to hold GOT pointer and stack pointer at all times. But one could write assembly code to do it :)

If all the above makes no sense to you it’s ok. Check kernel documentation for x86 exception handling instead which uses very similar technique.

To be able to handle all registers we need to bring in r9-r15. Those are written right before struct pt_regs right at entMM entry:

    /* save $9 - $15 so the inline exception code can manipulate them.  */
    subq $sp, 56, $sp
    stq $9, 0($sp)   // push r9
    stq $10, 8($sp)
    stq $11, 16($sp)
    stq $12, 24($sp)
    stq $13, 32($sp)
    stq $14, 40($sp)
    stq $15, 48($sp) // push r15
    addq $sp, 56, $19
    /* handle the fault */
    lda $8, 0x3fff
    bic $sp, $8, $8
    jsr $26, do_page_fault
    /* reload the registers after the exception code played.  */
    ldq $9, 0($sp) // pop r9
    ldq $10, 8($sp)
    ldq $11, 16($sp)
    ldq $12, 24($sp)
    ldq $13, 32($sp)
    ldq $14, 40($sp)
    ldq $15, 48($sp) // pop r15
    addq $sp, 56, $sp
    /* finish up the syscall as normal.  */
    br ret_from_sys_call

Here there are a few subtle things going on:

  1. at entry entMM already has a frame of last 6 values: ps,pc,gp,r16-r18.
  2. then SAVE_ALL (not pasted bove) stores r0-r8,r19-r28,hae,trap_a0-trap-a2
  3. and only then r9-r15 are stored (note the subq $sp, 56, $sp to place them before).

In C land only 2. and 3. constitute struct pt_regs. 1. happens to be outside and needs negative addressing we saw in dpf_reg().

As I understand the original idea was to share ret_from_sys_call part across various kernel entry points:

Of the above only page faults and unaligned faults need read/write acceess to every register.

In practice entUna uses different layout and simpler code patching.

The last step to get entMM executed at a fault handler is to register it in alpha’s PALcode subsystem (Privileged Architecture Library code).

It’s done in trap_init(). along with other handlers. Simple!

Or not so simple. What is that PALcode thing (wiki’s link)? It looks like a tiny hypervisor that provides service points for CPU you can access with call_pal <number> instruction.

It puzzled me a lot of what call_pal was supposed to do. Should it transfer control somwehre else or is it a normal call?

Actually given it’s a generic mechanism to do “privileged service calls” it can do both. I was not able to quickly find the details on how different service calls affect registers and found it simplest to navigate through qemu’s PAL source.

AFAIU PALcode of real alpha machine is a proprietary process-specific blob that could have it’s own quirks.

Back to out qemu-palcode let’s looks at a few examples.

First is function-like call_pal PAL_swpipl used in entMM and others:

    mfpr    v0, qemu_ps
    and     a0, PS_M_IPL, a0
    and     v0, PS_M_IPL, v0
    mtpr    a0, qemu_ps
ENDFN   CallPal_SwpIpl

I know almost nothing about PAL but I suspect mfpr means move-from-physical-register. hw_rei/hw_ret is a branch from PAL service routine back to “unprivileged” user/kernel.

hw_rei does normal return from call_pal to the instruction next to call_pal.

Here call_pal PAL_rti is an example of task-switch-like routine:

    mfpr    p6, qemu_exc_addr       // Save exc_addr for machine check

    ldq     p4, FRM_Q_PS($sp)       // Get the PS
    ldq     p5, FRM_Q_PC($sp)       // Get the return PC
    ldq     $gp, FRM_Q_GP($sp)      // Get gp
    ldq     a0, FRM_Q_A0($sp)       // Get a0
    ldq     a1, FRM_Q_A1($sp)       // Get a1
    ldq     a2, FRM_Q_A2($sp)       // Get a2
    lda     $sp, FRM_K_SIZE($sp)    // Pop the stack

    andnot  p5, 3, p5               // Clean return PC<1:0>

    and     p4, PS_M_CM, p3
    bne     p3, CallPal_Rti_ToUser

    and     p4, PS_M_IPL, p4
    mtpr    p4, qemu_ps
    hw_ret  (p5)
ENDFN   CallPal_Rti

Here target (p5, some service only hardware register) was passed on stack in FRM_Q_PC($sp).

That PAL_rti managed to confused me a lot as I was trying to single-step through it as a normal function. I did not notice how I was jumping from page fault handling code to timer interrupt handling code.

But all became clear once I found it’s definition.

Parting words

Have fun!

Posted on January 4, 2019
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