Linker script weird tricks or EFI on ia64

One of gentoo bugs was about gentoo install CD not being able to boot Itanium boxes.

The bug

The symptom is EFI loader error:

Loading.: Gentoo Linux
ImageAddress: pointer is outside of image
ImageAddress: pointer is outside of image
LoadPe: Section 1 was not loaded
Load of Gentoo Linux failed: Not Found
Paused - press any key to continue

which looks like a simple error if you have the hardware and source code of the loader that prints the error.

I had neither.

My plan was to extend ski emulator to be able to handle early EFI stuff. I started reading docs on early itanium boot life: on SALs (system abstraction layers), PALs (platform abstration layers), monarch processors, rendevouz protocols to handle MCAs (machine check aborts) and expected system state when hand off to EFI happens.

But SAL spec touches EFI only at SAL->EFI interface boundary. I dreaded to open EFI spec before finishing reading SAL paper.

How ia64 actually boots

But recently I got access to real management processor (sometimes also called MP, BMC (baseboard managenet controller), iLO (integrated lights-out)) on rx3600 machine and I gave up on extending ski for a while.

The very first thing I attempted is to get to serial console of operating system from iLO. It happened to be not as straightforward as passing console=ttyS0 to kernel. I ended up learning a bit about EFI shell, ia64-specific serial port numbering and elilo.

Eventually I was able to boot arbitrary kernel directly from EFI shell and get to kernel’s console! I needed that as a fallback in case I screw default boot loader, boot loader config or default boot options as I don’t have physical access to ia64 machine.

Here is an example of booting from CD and controlling it from iLO virtual serial console:

fs0:\efi\boot\bootia64.efi -i gentoo.igz gentoo initrd=gentoo.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc dokeymap looptype=squashfs loop=/image.squashfs cdroot console=ttyS1,115200n8

here fs0 is a FAT file system (on CD, could be on HDD) with EFI applications. bootia64.efi is a sys-boot/elilo application in disguse. console=ttyS1,115200n8 matches EFI setup of second serial console.

After successful boot from CD of known good old kernel (from 2009) I was not afraid of messing with main HDD install or even upgrading to brand new kernels, I even managed to squash another ia64-specific kernel and GCC bug! I’ll try to write another post about that.

This poking also helped me to understand boot process in more detail. ia64 boots in the following way:

  1. SAL: when machine powers on it executes SAL (and PAL) code to initialize System and Processors. This code is not easily updateable and usually stays the same across OS updates.
  2. EFI: Then SAL hands control to EFI (also not easily updateable) where I can interactively pick boot device or even get EFI shell to run EFI applications (programs for EFI environment).
  3. Bootloader (EFI application): Normally EFI is set up to start boot loader after a few seconds. It’s up to the user (finally!) to provide a bootloader implementation. Gentoo ia64 handbook suggests sys-boot/elilo package.
  4. OS kernel: bootloader finds OS kernel, loads it and hands control off to kernel.

Searching for the clues

Our problem happened at stage 3 where EFI failed to load elilo application.

Gentoo builds .iso images automatically and continuously. Here you can find ia64 isos. Older disks are available on actual builder machines.

As elilo used to work on images from 2008 and even 2016 (!) I passed through a few autobuilt ISO images and collected a few working and non-working samples and started comparing them.

I extracted elilo.efi files from 3 disks:

Normally I would start from running readelf -a on each executable and diff for suspicious changes. The files however are not ELFs:

$ file *.efi
elilo-2014-works.efi:         PE32+ executable (EFI application) Intel Itanium (stripped to external PDB), for MS Windows
elilo-2016-works.efi:         PE32 executable (EFI application) Intel Itanium (stripped to external PDB), for MS Windows
elilo-2018-does-not-work.efi: PE32+ executable (EFI application) Intel Itanium (stripped to external PDB), for MS Windows

One of them is not even PE32+ but still happens to boot.

Binutils has more generic readelf -a equivalent: it’s objdump -x. Comparing two good files:

$ objdump -x elilo-2014-works.efi > 2014.good
$ objdump -x elilo-2016-works.efi > 2016.good
--- 2014.good 2018-01-27 23:34:10.118197637 +0000
+++ 2016.good 2018-01-27 23:34:23.590191456 +0000
@@ -2,2 +2,2 @@
-elilo-2014-works.efi: file format pei-ia64
-elilo-2014-works.efi
+elilo-2016-works.efi: file format pei-ia64
+elilo-2016-works.efi
@@ -6 +6 @@
-start address 0x0000000000043a20
+start address 0x000000000003a6a0
@@ -14,2 +14,2 @@
-Time/Date Tue Jun 24 22:05:17 2014
-Magic 020b (PE32+)
+Time/Date Mon Jan 9 21:18:46 2006
+Magic 010b (PE32)
@@ -17,3 +17,3 @@
-MinorLinkerVersion 23
-SizeOfCode 00036e00
-SizeOfInitializedData 00020800
+MinorLinkerVersion 56
+SizeOfCode 0002e000
+SizeOfInitializedData 00028a00
@@ -21 +21 @@
-AddressOfEntryPoint 0000000000043a20
+AddressOfEntryPoint 000000000003a6a0
@@ -34,2 +34,2 @@
-SizeOfHeaders 000002c0
-CheckSum 00067705
+SizeOfHeaders 00000400
+CheckSum 00069054

There is a lot of odd going on here: the file on 2016 live CD is actually from 2006 and it’s actually older than file from 2014. It has different PE type and as a result different file alignment. Thus I discarded elilo-2016-works.efi as too old.

Comparing bad/good:

$ objdump -x elilo-2014-works.efi > 2014.good
$ objdump -x elilo-2018-does-not-work.efi > 2018.bad
$ diff -U0 2014.good 2018.bad
--- 2014.good 2018-01-27 23:42:58.355002114 +0000
+++ 2018.bad 2018-01-27 23:43:02.042000991 +0000
@@ -2,2 +2,2 @@
-elilo-2014-works.efi: file format pei-ia64
-elilo-2014-works.efi
+elilo-2018-does-not-work.efi: file format pei-ia64
+elilo-2018-does-not-work.efi
@@ -6 +6 @@
-start address 0x0000000000043a20
+start address 0x0000000000046d80
@@ -14 +14 @@
-Time/Date Tue Jun 24 22:05:17 2014
+Time/Date Thu Jan 1 01:00:00 1970
@@ -17,3 +17,3 @@
-MinorLinkerVersion 23
-SizeOfCode 00036e00
-SizeOfInitializedData 00020800
+MinorLinkerVersion 29
+SizeOfCode 0003a200
+SizeOfInitializedData 00020e00
@@ -21,2 +21,2 @@
-AddressOfEntryPoint 0000000000043a20
-BaseOfCode 0000000000001000
+AddressOfEntryPoint 0000000000046d80
+BaseOfCode 0000000000000000
@@ -33 +33 @@
-SizeOfImage 0005c000
+SizeOfImage 0005f000
@@ -35 +35 @@
-CheckSum 00067705
+CheckSum 0005f6a3
@@ -51 +51 @@
-Entry 5 0000000000058000 0000000c Base Relocation Directory [.reloc]
+Entry 5 000000000005b000 0000000c Base Relocation Directory [.reloc]
@@ -66,3 +66,3 @@
-Virtual Address: 00043a20 Chunk size 12 (0xc) Number of fixups 2
- reloc 0 offset 0 [43a20] DIR64
- reloc 1 offset 8 [43a28] DIR64
+Virtual Address: 00046d80 Chunk size 12 (0xc) Number of fixups 2
+ reloc 0 offset 0 [46d80] DIR64
+ reloc 1 offset 8 [46d88] DIR64
...
@@ -87,571 +87,585 @@
-[ 0](sec 3)(fl 0x00)(ty 0)(scl 3) (nx 0) 0x0000000000006a04 edd30_guid
-[ 1](sec 2)(fl 0x00)(ty 0)(scl 3) (nx 0) 0x00000000000001f8 done_fixups
...
-[570](sec 2)(fl 0x00)(ty 0)(scl 2) (nx 0) 0x0000000000000110 Optind
+[ 0](sec 3)(fl 0x00)(ty 0)(scl 3) (nx 0) 0x0000000000006ccc edd30_guid
+[ 1](sec 2)(fl 0x00)(ty 0)(scl 3) (nx 0) 0x0000000000000208 done_fixups
...
+[584](sec 2)(fl 0x00)(ty 0)(scl 2) (nx 0) 0x0000000000000110 Optind

This looks better. A few notable things:

I tried to build elilo with binutils-2.25: it produced the same binary as elilo-2018-does-not-work.efi.

My only clue was that BaseOfCode is zero. It felt like something used to reside in the first page before code section and now it does not anymore. What could it be?

GNU binutils linker scripts

Time to look at how decision is made what to put into the first page at link time!

The build process of elilo.efi is truly unusual. Let’s run emerge -1 sys-boot/elilo and check what commands are being executed to yield it:

# emerge -1 sys-boot/elilo
...
make -j1 ... ARCH=ia64
...
ia64-unknown-linux-gnu-gcc \
-I. -I. -I/usr/include/efi -I/usr/include/efi/ia64 -I/usr/include/efi/protocol -I./efi110 \
-O2 -fno-stack-protector -fno-strict-aliasing -fpic -fshort-wchar \
-Wall \
-DENABLE_MACHINE_SPECIFIC_NETCONFIG -DCONFIG_LOCALFS -DCONFIG_NETFS -DCONFIG_CHOOSER_SIMPLE \
-DCONFIG_CHOOSER_TEXTMENU \
-frename-registers -mfixed-range=f32-f127 \
-DCONFIG_ia64 \
-c glue_netfs.c -o glue_netfs.o
ia64-unknown-linux-gnu-ld \
-nostdlib -znocombreloc \
-T /usr/lib/elf_ia64_efi.lds \
-shared -Bsymbolic \
-L/usr/lib -L/usr/lib \
/usr/lib/crt0-efi-ia64.o elilo.o getopt.o strops.o loader.o fileops.o util.o vars.o alloc.o \
chooser.o config.o initrd.o alternate.o bootparams.o gunzip.o console.o fs/fs.o choosers/choosers.o \
devschemes/devschemes.o ia64/sysdeps.o glue_localfs.o glue_netfs.o \
\
-o elilo.so \
\
-lefi -lgnuefi \
/usr/lib/gcc/ia64-unknown-linux-gnu/7.2.0/libgcc.a
ia64-unknown-linux-gnu-ld: warning: creating a DT_TEXTREL in a shared object.
objcopy -j .text -j .sdata -j .data -j .dynamic -j .dynsym -j .rel \
-j .rela -j .reloc --target=efi-app-ia64 elilo.so elilo.efi
>>> Source compiled.

Here we see the following steps:

Luckily gnu-efi and elilo have superb documentation (10 pages). All the obscure corners are explained in every detail. Part 2: Inner Workings is the short description of how every dynamic linker works with a light touch of ELF -> PE32+ conversion. I wish I have seen this doc years ago :)

Let’s looks at the elf_ia64_efi.lds linker script to get full understanding of where every byte comes from when elilo.so is being linked (sourceforge viewer):

OUTPUT_FORMAT("elf64-ia64-little")
OUTPUT_ARCH(ia64)
ENTRY(_start_plabel)
SECTIONS
{
. = 0;
ImageBase = .;
.hash : { *(.hash) }/* this MUST come first! */
. = ALIGN(4096);
.text :
{
_text = .;
*(.text)
*(.text.*)
*(.gnu.linkonce.t.*)
. = ALIGN(16);
}
_etext = .;
_text_size = . - _text;
. = ALIGN(4096);
__gp = ALIGN (8) + 0x200000;
.sdata :
{
_data = .;
*(.got.plt)
*(.got)
*(.srodata)
*(.sdata)
*(.sbss)
*(.scommon)
}
. = ALIGN(4096);
.data :
{
*(.rodata*)
*(.ctors)
*(.data*)
*(.gnu.linkonce.d*)
*(.plabel)/* data whose relocs we want to ignore */
/* the EFI loader doesn't seem to like a .bss section, so we stick
it all into .data: */
*(.dynbss)
*(.bss)
*(COMMON)
}
.note.gnu.build-id : { *(.note.gnu.build-id) }
. = ALIGN(4096);
.dynamic : { *(.dynamic) }
. = ALIGN(4096);
.rela :
{
*(.rela.text)
*(.rela.data*)
*(.rela.sdata)
*(.rela.got)
*(.rela.gnu.linkonce.d*)
*(.rela.stab)
*(.rela.ctors)
}
_edata = .;
_data_size = . - _etext;
. = ALIGN(4096);
.reloc :/* This is the PECOFF .reloc section! */
{
*(.reloc)
}
. = ALIGN(4096);
.dynsym : { *(.dynsym) }
. = ALIGN(4096);
.dynstr : { *(.dynstr) }
/DISCARD/ :
{
*(.rela.plabel)
*(.rela.reloc)
*(.IA_64.unwind*)
*(.IA64.unwind*)
}
}

Even though the file is very big it’s easy to read. Linker script defines symbols (as symbol = expression, . (dot) means “current address”) and output section (as .output-section : { expressions }) in terms of input sections.

Here is what linker script tries to achieve:

GNU hash mystery

Later objcopy is used to produce final (PE32+) binary by copying whitelisted sections passed via -j:

objcopy -j .text -j .sdata -j .data -j .dynamic -j .dynsym -j .rel \
        -j .rela -j .reloc --target=efi-app-ia64 elilo.so elilo.efi

While objcopy does not copy .hash section into final binary it’s mere presence in elilo.so file changes .text offset as linker already allocated space for it in elilo.so and resolved other reloactions taking offset into account.

So why offset disappeared? Simple! Because gentoo does not generate .hash sections since 2014! .gnu.hash (DT_GNU_HASH) is being used instead. DT_GNU_HASH was added to binutils/glibc around 2006 as an optional mechanism to speed up dynamic linking and dynamic loading.

But linker script does not deal with .gnu.hash sections!

It’s easy to mimic handling of both section types:

--- a/gnuefi/elf_ia64_efi.lds
+++ b/gnuefi/elf_ia64_efi.lds
@@ -7,2 +7,3 @@ SECTIONS
ImageBase = .;
.hash : { *(.hash) } /* this MUST come first! */
+ .gnu.hash : { *(.gnu.hash) }

This fix alone was enough to restore elilo.efi! A few other architectures did not handle it either. See full upstream fix.

Breakage mechanics

But why does it matter? What does it mean to drop .hash section completely? PE format does not have a .hash equivalent.

Let’s inspect what actually changes in elilo.so file before and after the patch:

$ objdump -x elilo.efi.no.gnu.hash > elilo.efi.no.gnu.hash.od
$ objdump -x elilo.efi.gnu.hash > elilo.efi.gnu.hash.od
--- elilo.efi.no.gnu.hash.od 2018-01-29 23:05:25.776000000 +0000
+++ elilo.efi.gnu.hash.od 2018-01-29 23:05:31.700000000 +0000
@@ -2,2 +2,2 @@
-elilo.efi.no.gnu.hash: file format pei-ia64
-elilo.efi.no.gnu.hash
+elilo.efi.gnu.hash: file format pei-ia64
+elilo.efi.gnu.hash
@@ -6 +6 @@
-start address 0x0000000000046d80
+start address 0x0000000000047d80
@@ -21,2 +21,2 @@
-AddressOfEntryPoint 0000000000046d80
-BaseOfCode 0000000000000000
+AddressOfEntryPoint 0000000000047d80
+BaseOfCode 0000000000001000
@@ -33 +33 @@
-SizeOfImage 0005f000
+SizeOfImage 00060000
...
@@ -633,39 +633,38 @@
-[546](sec 1)(fl 0x00)(ty 0)(scl 2) (nx 0) 0x0000000000000000 ImageBase
-[547](sec 3)(fl 0x00)(ty 0)(scl 2) (nx 0) 0x0000000000007560 Udp4ServiceBindingProtocol
...
-[584](sec 2)(fl 0x00)(ty 0)(scl 2) (nx 0) 0x0000000000000110 Optind
+[546](sec 3)(fl 0x00)(ty 0)(scl 2) (nx 0) 0x0000000000007560 Udp4ServiceBindingProtocol
...
+[583](sec 2)(fl 0x00)(ty 0)(scl 2) (nx 0) 0x0000000000000110 Optind
...

Here internal ImageBase symbol became external symbol! Which means EFI would have to resolve ImageBase at application startup. That’s why we have seen loader error (as opposed to elilo.efi runtime errors or kernel boot errors).

ELF spec says shared objects and dynamic executables are required to have .hash (or .gnu.hash) section to be valid executable but linker script did not maintain this requirement and all hell broke loose.

Perhaps linker could be tweaked to report warnings when symbol table is missing from output file. But as you can see linker scripts are much more powerful than just implementing fixed output format.

Fun details

gnu-efi has a lot of other jewels!

For example, entry point has to point to ia64 function descriptor (FDESCR). FDESCR is a pair of pointers: pointer to code section (actual entry point) and value of gp register (global pointer, base pointer used by PIC code).

These two pointers are both absolute addresses. But EFI application needs to be relocatable (loadable at different addresses).

Entry point FDESCR needs to be relocated by EFI loader.

How would you inject ia64 relocation to two 64-bit pointers in PE32+ format? gnu-efi does a very crazy thing (even more crazy than relying on objcopy to Just Work)): it injects PE32+ relocation directly into ia64 ELF code! That’s how it does the trick (the snippet below is the very tail of crt0-efi-ia64.S file):

// PE32+ wants a PLABEL, not the code address of the entry point:
.align 16
.global _start_plabel
.section .plabel, "a"
_start_plabel:
data8 _start
data8 __gp
// hand-craft a .reloc section for the plabel:
#define IMAGE_REL_BASED_DIR64 10
.section .reloc, "a"
data4 _start_plabel // Page RVA
data4 12 // Block Size (2*4+2*2)
data2 (IMAGE_REL_BASED_DIR64<<12) + 0 // reloc for plabel's entry point
data2 (IMAGE_REL_BASED_DIR64<<12) + 8 // reloc for plabel's global pointer

This code generates two sections:

Here we have two relocations that add ImageBase: to _start and to _gp. And it’s precisely these two relocations that EFI loader reported as invalid:

ImageAddress: pointer is outside of image
ImageAddress: pointer is outside of image
LoadPe: Section 1 was not loaded

Before .gnu.hash fix ImageBase (ImageAddress in EFI terminology) was indeed pointing somewhere else.

How about searching internets for source of this EFI loader error? tianocode has one hit in commented out code:

//...
Base = EfiLdrPeCoffImageAddress (Image, (UINTN)Section->VirtualAddress);
End = EfiLdrPeCoffImageAddress (Image, (UINTN)(Section->VirtualAddress + Section->Misc.VirtualSize));
if (EFI_ERROR(Status) || !Base || !End) {
// DEBUG((D_LOAD|D_ERROR, "LoadPe: Section %d was not loaded\n", Index));
PrintHeader ('L');
return EFI_LOAD_ERROR;
}
//...

Not very useful but still fun :)

Parting words

Itanium was the first system EFI was targeted at and was later morphed into UEFI. Surprisingly I managed to ignore (U)EFI-based boot on modern machines and this bug was my first experience to deal with it. And it was not too bad! :)

I found out a few things along the way:

Have fun!

Posted on February 2, 2018
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