gcc-12 journey

April 24, 2022

It’s the end of April. This means gcc-12 will likely get released soon.

6 months passed since I wrote about fancy bugs in development versions of gcc. Nowadays I use weekly gcc snapshots against nixpkgs tree. Usually I rebuild just my system against weekly gcc shapshots. But sometimes I build random packages to check how gcc behaves on more exotic code bases. Most of the time everything Just Works. It would be too boring if things worked all the time.

Since November 2021 I encountered ~30 gcc bugs which makes it roughly one bug a week. I could hardly handle more than that.

I’ll list most of these bugs below. ICEs (internal compiler errors) are usually the easiest to find and report. Wrong-code bugs are more interesting and are also way harder to minimize and report.

I usually get to know a lot more about gcc from wrong-code cases. This time I got only two of them. I’ll start from them.

-fipa-modref strikes again

ipa/103432: gcc miscompiled libjxl in a way that test suite started failing.

I can’t provide a small failure example as the bug requires specific inline to happen within one compilation.

The effect program result difference when built with -O0 versus -O2. The test was a floating point workload. Those always have a potential of being not-a-bug, but an expected precision loss (like fma() precision increase).

It took me a while to reduce original test manually to something that is still a valid program but is small enough to be able to debug it.

The fix tells us what kind of error it was in gcc: information about inferred effects of functions was calculated but not actually used, something else’s ditails were used. It’s a nasty kind of bugs: things work for smaller programs and break only in non-trivial scenarios.

I’m glad I spent some time to extract the reproducer.

global constructors wrong code

c++/104031: gcc generated wrong global initializer for nix. Minimal example:

struct vector
  vector(){}  ~vector(){}
struct Info {
    vector args;
    int arity = 0;
struct RegisterPrimOp
    [[gnu::noipa, gnu::noinline]]
    RegisterPrimOp(Info info) {
        if (info.arity != 0)
static RegisterPrimOp s_op({
    .args = vector{},
    .arity = 0,
int main() {}

The code’s idea is to always have arity initialized to 0. In practice gcc-12 managed to put something else into arity:

# ok:
$ g++-11.2.0 main.cc -o main -O2 && ./main

# bad:
$ g++-12.0.0 main.cc -o main -O2 && ./main
Illegal instruction (core dumped)

The fix sheds some light into why it happens: this declaration syntax is special and it was not handled in some definitions. As a result arity was uninitialized.

type comparison ICE

c++/101715: gcc ICE on clang’s compiler-rt library. Minimized example:

template <class A> struct S {
  S<A> & bar() noexcept(A::value);
  S<A> & foo() noexcept(A::value);

template <class A> S<A> & S<A>::foo() noexcept(A::value) {}


$ g++-12.0.0 -c a.c.cpp -std=c++14
# no crash

$ g++-12.0.0 -c a.c.cpp -std=c++17
a.c.cpp:6:56: internal compiler error: canonical types differ for identical types 'S<A>& (S<A>::)() noexcept (A::value)' and 'S<A>& (S<A>::)() noexcept (A::value)'
    6 | template <class A> S<A> & S<A>::foo() noexcept(A::value) {}
      |                                                        ^
0xc3f6ee comptypes(tree_node*, tree_node*, int)

Note that -std=c++14 is not enough to trigger the failure. gcc-11 did change the default from gnu++14 to gnu++17.

Sometimes gcc needs to compare types for equality. That usually happens in template instantiation when closest specialization is picked. It might sound easy, but the subtlety is in details: template types can refer to other (possibly not yet defined) template types in their definition.

When instantiation happens it’s crucial to resolve identical types into the same canonical type.

In the commit message Marek added great explataion how canonical types came into divergence.

null warnings in dynamic_cast expressions

c++/96003: gcc failed to build firefox (due to -Werror=null). Minimized example:

struct A { virtual ~A (); };
struct B { virtual ~B (); void f (); };

void f (A *p)
    if (dynamic_cast<B*>(p))
        dynamic_cast<B*>(p)->f ();

Build error:

$ gcc -O2 -S -Wall t.C
t.C: In function ‘void f(A*)’:
t.C:7:29: warning: ‘this’ pointer is null [-Wnonnull]
    7 |     dynamic_cast<B*>(p)->f ();
      |                             ^
t.C:2:32: note: in a call to non-static member function ‘void B::f()’
    2 | struct B { virtual ~B (); void f (); };
      |                                ^

This time it’s not an ICE but a seemingly reasonable warning. Ideally original code should be restructured into something simpler, like:

struct A { virtual ~A (); };
struct B { virtual ~B (); void f (); };

void f (A *p)
    B * b = dynamic_cast<B*>(p);
    if (b)
        b->f ();

The fix suppressed warnings for some cases where similar code is generated by gcc itself (instead of being handwritten). More complicated cases will still issue warnings.

You might need to clean your code up to avoid similar warnings.

vectored intrinsics ICE

middle-end/102080: gcc ICE on firefox build. Minimized example:

// cat dec_reconstruct.cc.cc
#pragma GCC target "avx"
typedef float __m256 __attribute__((__vector_size__(32)));
__m256 _mm256_blendv_ps___Y, _mm256_blendv_ps___M, _mm256_mul_ps___A,
    _mm256_mul_ps___B, IfThenElse___trans_tmp_9;
void IfThenElse(__m256 no) {
  IfThenElse___trans_tmp_9 = __builtin_ia32_blendvps256(
      no, _mm256_blendv_ps___Y, _mm256_blendv_ps___M);
#pragma GCC target "avx512vl"
void EncodedFromDisplay() {
  __m256 __trans_tmp_11 = _mm256_mul_ps___A * _mm256_mul_ps___B;


$ /tmp/gcc-c/gcc/xg++ -B/tmp/gcc-c/gcc -c dec_reconstruct.cc.cc -O0
# no crash

$ /tmp/gcc-c/gcc/xg++ -B/tmp/gcc-c/gcc -c dec_reconstruct.cc.cc -O2
during RTL pass: expand
dec_reconstruct.cc.cc: In function 'void EncodedFromDisplay()':
dec_reconstruct.cc.cc:10:6: internal compiler error: in expand_insn, at optabs.c:7946
   10 | void EncodedFromDisplay() {
      |      ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The sample is not very readable but it’s essentially a direct call of __builtin_ia32_blendvps256() AVX intrinsic. Those usually get translated 1-to-1 into CPU instructions.

Here the crash happens in expand_insn() where middle end expands GIMPLE (C style tree-like representation) into RTL (assembly style instruction-like representation). Assertion complains about unexpected arguments.

The fix adjusts one of GIMPLE simplifiers to not generate invalid GIMPLE around vectored conditionals.

atomics intrinsics ICE

tree-optimization/103268: gcc ICE on glib build. Minimized example:

static int si;
test_types (long n)
  unsigned int u2 = __atomic_fetch_xor (&si, 0, 5);
  return u2;


$ gcc -O2 -S x.c
during GIMPLE pass: fab
x.c: In function ‘test_types’:
x.c:3:1: internal compiler error: in optimize_atomic_bit_test_and, at tree-ssa-ccp.c:3645
    3 | test_types (long n)
      | ^~~~~~~~~~
0x1515c9d optimize_atomic_bit_test_and

The fix suggests the tree matcher had an accident fall-through code. It was supposed to reject unhandled cases instead of attempting to generate something nonsensical.

vectored instructions selector ICE

target/103557: gcc ICE on tpm2-tss build. Minimized example:

struct {
  char sm3_256[32];
typedef struct {
  short size;
  char buffer[sizeof(TPMU_HA)];
typedef struct {
  TPM2B_DIGEST auths[3];

void Tss2_Sys_Clear(TSS2L_SYS_AUTH_COMMAND);

void sysContext(void) {
  TPM2B_DIGEST nonce = {};
  TSS2L_SYS_AUTH_COMMAND sessionsDataIn = {{nonce}};


$ gcc-12.0.0 -O2  -c a.c.c -o a.o
during RTL pass: sched2
a.c.c: In function 'sysContext':
a.c.c:19:1: internal compiler error: Segmentation fault
   19 | }
      | ^
0x1e22687 internal_error(char const*, ...)
0xe7e43c memory_operand(rtx_def*, machine_mode)
0x167e598 get_attr_memory(rtx_insn*)
0x19a4bc0 insn_default_latency_generic(rtx_insn*)
0x1c74ad3 insn_sched_cost(rtx_insn*)
0x1c77934 dep_cost_1(_dep*, unsigned int)
0x1c79d7f set_priorities(rtx_insn*, rtx_insn*)
0xec28e2 compute_priorities()

In this case instruction selector fails to fetch the details around memory reference accessed by instruction. The change fixes x86-specific vectored instruction definitions to accept expected inputs.

another atomics ICE

tree-optimization/103682: gcc ICE on some cryptographic code. Minimized example:

#include <atomic>

bool bug(std::atomic<unsigned> & ready, unsigned u) {
  return (ready.fetch_and(~u) & u);


$ g++-12.0.0 -Ofast -c bug.cpp
during GIMPLE pass: fab
bug.cpp: In function 'bool bug(std::atomic<unsigned int>&, unsigned int)':
bug.cpp:6:6: internal compiler error: gimple check: expected gimple_assign(error_mark), have gimple_nop() in gimple_assign_rhs_code, at gimple.h:2852
    6 | bool bug(std::atomic<unsigned> & ready, unsigned u) {
      |      ^~~
0x20a58f7 internal_error(char const*, ...)
0x7c76dd gimple_check_failed(gimple const*, char const*, int, char const*, gimple_code, tree_code)

The fix shows us it was another case where one particular case of GIMPLE form was not handled.

another template instantiation ICE

c++/103769: gcc ICE on openttd. Minimized example:

template <typename T> using t = T;
template <typename...> struct s;
template <typename... Args> s<t<Args>...> f() { f<void>(); }


$ g++-12.0.0 --param=hash-table-verification-limit=1000 -O1 -o a.o -c bug.cpp

hash table checking failed: equal operator returns true for a pair of values with a different hash value
bug.cpp: In substitution of 'template<class ... Args> s<Args ...> f() [with Args = {void}]':
bug.cpp:3:56:   required from here
bug.cpp:3:43: internal compiler error: in hashtab_chk_error, at hash-table.c:137
    3 | template <typename... Args> s<t<Args>...> f() { f<void>(); }
      |                                           ^
0x9c316d hashtab_chk_error()
0xbeca15 hash_table<spec_hasher, false, xcallocator>::verify(spec_entry* const&, unsigned int)
0xbecb6f hash_table<spec_hasher, false, xcallocator>::find_with_hash(spec_entry* const&, unsigned int)
0xbd58bc lookup_template_class_1

This is aanother c++ frontend bug where identical types have different objects. Here I found out about --param=hash-table-verification-limit=1000 option which enables more frequent type mismatches like this. Without this option the bug disappears when program is still large.

The change shows it was a case of reused type object in typedef simplification.

yet another vectored expansion ICE

target/103842: gcc ICE on ilmbase-2.5.7. Minimized example:

void abs(float *);
struct Matrix33 {
  float x[3][3];
  float *operator[](int i) { return x[i]; }
  Matrix33(float f, float g) {
    x[1][0] = x[1][1] = x[1][2] = f;
    x[2][0] = g;
  void equalWithAbsError();
  Matrix33 inverse() {
    Matrix33 s(x[1][2] - x[1][2], x[1][1] - x[1][1]);
    float r = s[2][0];
    if (r)
      for (int i = 0; i < 3; ++i)
        for (int j = 0; j < 3; ++j)
          s[i][j] /= r;
    for (int i = 0;;) {
      float *__trans_tmp_2 = s[i];
void __assert_fail() {
  Matrix33 m, inv1 = m.inverse(), ident1 = inv1;


$ g++-12.0.0 -O3 -c bug.cpp.cpp
during RTL pass: expand
bug.cpp.cpp: In function 'void __assert_fail()':
bug.cpp.cpp:27:5: internal compiler error: Segmentation fault
   27 |     }
      |     ^
0x21196c6 internal_error(char const*, ...)

The change fixes another case of x86-specific instruction selector that generates unexpected instruction parameters.

one more vectored instruction ICE

target/103894: gcc ICE on valgrind.

The change fixes marking of available SSE instructions in 32-bit mode.

precompiled headers

target/103910: gcc ICE on openjdk. Minimized example:

#include "precompiled.hpp"
void *operator new(unsigned long, void *__p) { return __p; }
#define MEMORY_TYPES_DO(f) f(mtNone, )
enum MEMFLAGS {};
#define MEMORY_TYPE_SHORTNAME(type, human_readable) MEMFLAGS type;
  GrowableArrayView(int *, int, int);
int *GrowableArrayWithAllocator_data;
struct GrowableArrayWithAllocator : GrowableArrayView {
  GrowableArrayWithAllocator(int initial_max)
      : GrowableArrayView(GrowableArrayWithAllocator_data, initial_max, 0) {
    for (int i = 0; i < initial_max; i++)
      new (&GrowableArrayWithAllocator_data[i]) int();
struct GrowableArrayMetadata {
struct GrowableArray : GrowableArrayWithAllocator {
  GrowableArrayMetadata _metadata;
  GrowableArray(int initial_max)
      : GrowableArrayWithAllocator(initial_max), _metadata(mtNone) {}
struct SourceObjList {
SourceObjList::SourceObjList() { GrowableArray(128 * 1024); }


$ rm -rf ph
$ mkdir -p ph
$ touch precompiled_.hpp # create empty file
$ ./xg++ -B. -O3 -march=opteron -fcheck-new -c precompiled_.hpp -o ph/precompiled.hpp.gch
$ ./xg++ -B. -O3 -march=opteron -fcheck-new -Iph -c archiveBuilder.cpp -o a.o

during GIMPLE pass: aprefetch
archiveBuilder.cpp: In constructor ‘SourceObjList::SourceObjList()’:
archiveBuilder.cpp:28:1: internal compiler error: in gimple_build_call, at gimple.c:267
   28 | SourceObjList::SourceObjList() { GrowableArray(128 * 1024); }
      | ^~~~~~~~~~~~~
0xd2845f gimple_build_call(tree_node*, unsigned int, ...)
0x12880c8 emit_mfence_after_loop
0x12880c8 mark_nontemporal_stores
0x12880c8 loop_prefetch_arrays
0x12880c8 tree_ssa_prefetch_arrays()
0x1288be9 execute

This is an unusual and scary case: precompiled headers are implemented as a serialization of part of gcc heap. The serialization tries hard to be very fast and cuts corners in various places. Up to the point where building positional-independent gcc binary breaks GCH: https://gcc.gnu.org/PR71934. It’s very fragile. It does not have to be.

To make GCH somehow work gcc’s internals have garbage collector implementation. It requires global variables to be annotated with gcc-specific GTY markings that describe heap layout.

The change hints at an x86_mfence global variable that did not have the marking.

Why did it break only with GCH?

Without GCH, x86_mfence is referenced via another global object which has GTY marking. Both are constructed via normal means of gcc parsing the source.

With GCH, that another global object is restored at a different location and the decl that is refenced by x86_mfence is GC’ed out.

C++ frontend constructor ICE

c++/103910: gcc ICE on dolphin-emu. Minimized example:

struct TVec3 {
  int data;
using Vec3 = TVec3;
struct {
  Vec3 position{};
} EmulatePoint_state;
void EmulatePoint() { EmulatePoint_state = {}; }


$ /tmp/gcc/xg++ -B/tmp/gcc -c bug.cc -freport-bug
bug.cc: In function ‘void EmulatePoint()’:
bug.cc:9:42: internal compiler error: in cp_gimplify_expr, at cp/cp-gimplify.cc:746
    9 | void EmulatePoint() { EmulatePoint_state = {}; }
      |                       ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~^~~~
0x7a0fb2 cp_gimplify_expr(tree_node**, gimple**, gimple**)
0xd9fb80 gimplify_expr(tree_node**, gimple**, gimple**, bool (*)(tree_node*), int)
0xdab095 gimplify_init_ctor_preeval

In this case gcc was unable to generate GIMPLE out of EmulatePoint_state = {}; statement.

The change expands set of cases that look like a constructor call.

fun option handling bug

middle-end/104705: gcc ICEs when tried to build ghc.

Normally I would expect ghc to be the last project to crash gcc as it does not do anything fancy in C land. And yet here we are. Minimized example:

#pragma GCC optimize "foo"
#pragma GCC push_options
#pragma GCC pop_options


$ /tmp/bg/gcc/xgcc -B/tmp/bg/gcc -c a.c  -O2 -Wall
a.c:1:9: warning: bad option ‘-ffoo’ to pragma ‘optimize’ [-Wpragmas]
    1 | #pragma GCC optimize "foo"
      |         ^~~
a.c:3:9: internal compiler error: ‘global_options’ are modified in local context
    3 | #pragma GCC pop_options
      |         ^~~

A cryptic assert. The fix says that -g* option was not accounted for when option contexts are created and destroyed with pragmas.

unexpected analyzer ICEs

analyzer/105074: gcc ICE when tried to build gnutls.

void _gnutls_log(const char *);
static void _gnutls_ocsp_verify_mandatory_stapling(void) {
void check_ocsp_response_gnutls_x509_cert_verify_peers(void) {


$ /tmp/gb/gcc/xgcc -B/tmp/gb/gcc -O2 -fanalyzer -c cert-session.c

during IPA pass: analyzer
In function ‘_gnutls_ocsp_verify_mandatory_stapling’,
    inlined from ‘check_ocsp_response_gnutls_x509_cert_verify_peers’ at cert-session.c:7:3:
cert-session.c:4:3: internal compiler error: Segmentation fault
    4 |   _gnutls_log(__func__);
      |   ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
0xdd6bc3 crash_signal
0x8a8120 cgraph_node::get_edge(gimple*)
0x121059c ipa_ref_requires_tracking
0x121059c symnode_requires_tracking_p
0x121059c ana::decl_region::calc_tracked_p(tree_node*)
0x1234786 ana::decl_region::decl_region(unsigned int, ana::region const*, tree_node*)

The change adjusts the checks for expressions without explicit declaration.

On a surface side it’s an obscure -fanalyzer crash on func expression that should not pop up frequently. Perhaps gnutls is a rare package that enables -fanalyser?

No. If we look at the source of -fanalyzer flag we’ll find that it’s one of default warnings of … gnulib(!).

We will probably see a lot more analyser crashes as it’s one of the more complex pieces of gcc.

ia64 RTL mach ICE

target/105215: gcc ICE on openssl (ia64 target).

Not fixed yet.

ia64 RTL mach ICE

target/105247: gcc ICE on sqlite-3.38.2 (ia64 target). Minimal example:

int sqlite3CodeVerifySchemaAtToplevel_pToplevel_0;
void sqlite3CodeVerifySchema();
void sqlite3FindInIndex_pParse() {
  int i = -8;
  sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(sqlite3FindInIndex_pParse, i);
void sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(int, int iDb) {
  sqlite3CodeVerifySchemaAtToplevel_pToplevel_0 |= 1 << iDb;


$ ia64-unknown-linux-gnu-gcc -O1 -c sqlite3-sqlite3.o.c -o a.o

during RTL pass: cse1
sqlite3-sqlite3.o.c: In function 'sqlite3FindInIndex_pParse':
sqlite3-sqlite3.o.c:7:1: internal compiler error: in decompose, at rtl.h:2288
    7 | }
      | ^
0xa02263 wi::int_traits<>::decompose()
0xa02263 wide_int_ref_storage<>::wide_int_ref_storage<>()
0xa02263 generic_wide_int<>::generic_wide_int<>()
0xa02263 wide_int_storage::wide_int_storage<>()

The change has a great explanation of the details by Jakub: arithmetic shift (to implement 1 << iDb) on ia64 is slightly different from other targets: it’s defined only for 64-bit type (long / unsigned ulong types).

popcount and libgcc

middle-end/105253: gcc fails to build linux. Minimal example:

foo (unsigned long long *p)
  int i, cnt = 0;
  unsigned long long elem;
  for (i = 0; i < (256 / 64); i++)
      elem = p[i];
      for (; elem; cnt++)
        elem &= elem - 1;
  return cnt;

Link error:

ERROR: modpost: "__popcountdi2" [drivers/net/ethernet/broadcom/bnx2x/bnx2x.ko] undefined!
ERROR: modpost: "__popcountdi2" [drivers/gpu/drm/amd/amdgpu/amdgpu.ko] undefined!

Long time ago gcc used to produce direct CPU instructions to implement this code. Nowadays gcc recognises this pattern and converts it to a __builtin_popcountl() call.

If CPU supports popcnt instruction then gcc emits it as is. But if CPU has no support for it gcc generates __popcountdi2 external function call. __popcountdi2 is implemented in libgcc for all targets.

Normally such a replacement just works. But linux kernel does not use libgcc for various rasons and prefers to re-implement such builtins (division, shifts, memcpy, strlen operations). But popcout ones did not occur frequently enough to be re-implemented in kernel.

One of the fixes would be to extend linux kernel with popcount. But so far gcc tweaked cost heuristics to avoid such conversion for targets that don’t have efficient popcnt.

Until next time perhaps :)

Parting words

Most of these bugs are short-lived and would have no chance to slip into a release. Most ICEs are also not hard to workaround when encountered.

The wrong-code bugs are the subtlest. These usually live for a while until they get noticed.

Bug stats by subsystem:

If not for ia64 bugs c++ would be the primary source of bugs.

gcc-12 is very close to a release cut date. I hope it to be smooth.

As usual here is a list if notable changes for upcoming release: https://gcc.gnu.org/gcc-12/changes.html

If you feel like it do give the gcc snapshot a try.

Have fun!